What Is Software Composition Analysis?

When building and using software, modern IT teams need to be aware of all of its components. This is vital for security and compliance purposes. Software Composition Analysis is one of the techniques that make this possible.

Software Composition Analysis (SCA) is an innovative application security technique that involves identifying and analyzing the various software components used in an application. SCA tools typically use automated scanning techniques to analyze the software components used in an application and identify any security vulnerabilities or license compliance issues. These tools can identify the specific version of a component used, plus any known vulnerabilities associated with that version, and provide information on any license requirements or restrictions associated with the component.

SCA is important because it allows developers to proactively manage and mitigate risks associated with third-party software components. By identifying and addressing vulnerabilities and compliance issues early in the development process, SCA can help reduce the risk of security breaches, ensure compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, and improve the overall quality and reliability of software.

How Does Software Composition Analysis Work?

SCA tools are instrumental in the discovery of all related and relevant components. They keep track of the open-source components used by the applications. In our modern world, open-source is one of the most prominent drivers of innovation and digital transformation, and due to enormous benefits, most organizations have come to rely on them. Thanks to the advantages of open-source technology, companies can now leverage digitization. The downside is that companies are susceptible to open-source security vulnerabilities. Therefore, the objective of SCA tools is to scan applications as they develop, understand the open-source components being used, and identify key security vulnerabilities.

 The SCA tool scans a specified codebase to create an inventory. This is usually your app build files stored on the developer’s desktop, a staging server, or a build directly. The scan allows the creation of a Software Bill of Materials which is a sort of inventory of all the open-source components and dependencies used in the build process.

For each component detected, the SCA tool documents specific information such as the component version, location, and license information. In addition to listing the components and their associated information, the analysis also includes scanning the files in order to identify vulnerable third-party libraries and dependencies by comparing the SBOM with known vulnerability databases or CVEs (common vulnerabilities and exposures).

If vulnerabilities or potential license risks are detected, the SCA alerts the administrators and may also offer suggestions to remediate these risks. Most teams prefer to integrate the SCA tool into the CI/CD pipeline directly. This way, the SCA tool can automatically scan new versions of the project to ensure consistency in license compliance and security.

How SCA Reduces Open-Source Software Risk?

Open-source components are affordable. They also allow developers to deploy a wide range of functionality at a fraction of the time spent on writing custom code from scratch. Due to these reasons, they have become widely popular in modern software development projects. Despite all of these benefits, the use of open-source software introduces certain risks mainly in the form of software supply chain security vulnerabilities and legal or compliance issues.

Since OSS is developed and maintained by a large community of developers, it is often vulnerable to security breaches. Malicious actors may find vulnerabilities in the code and exploit them to attack software across the supply chain where these open-source components are used. Also, open-source software is often governed by specific licensing terms, and failure to comply with these terms can result in legal issues. This is why knowing this software and the potential risks they pose is important.

Software Composition Analysis (SCA) is a process that helps to reduce these risks by identifying and analyzing the various open-source components used in a software project. In addition to helping with software inventory management, this automated technique of analyzing software components also identifies specific vulnerabilities and remediates them. Here are some ways in which SCA reduces the risk associated with OSS:

Management of inventory and OSS dependencies

Software Composition Analysis tools allow development teams to uncover all the open-source components used in the source code. These include build dependencies, binaries, containers, and subcomponents of the software they’re building or using. This is particularly important in extensive development projects that include multiple third-party suppliers and partners.

The SCA tool automates the process of creating a Software Bill of Materials (SBOM), which is one of the most important software inventory and security management tools. An SBOM is designed to describe individual components of software including the different versions of this software and their licenses.

Having a detailed inventory of your software components this way simplifies the process of managing your application so you can carry out vital operations such as version control, upgrades, or patches without confusion.

Security professionals also need this document to understand the components of an application better in order to gain much-needed insights into possible security and licensing issues. This way, if the software throws up any vulnerabilities, they can be quickly identified and fixed

Identification and Analysis of OSS vulnerabilities

Using Software Composition Analysis allows you to identify any component with known security vulnerabilities (bad libraries that may have been compromised or created by cybercriminals for supply chain attacks) in your software. This way, developers can take appropriate actions to mitigate such security risks as soon as they’re detected.

In addition to identifying vulnerable or high-risk files, some SCA tools also have continuous monitoring capabilities which allow users to set up alerts to notify them of any newly discovered vulnerabilities in their software products.

SCA also helps with the detection of license and compliance issues. More than just verifying what open-source software you’re using in your application, SCA identifies the licensing information of these components so you can discover if any of them have license restrictions that may prove problematic for the project’s intended use. This helps avoid potential legal issues that could arise from non-compliance with OSS licenses.

Remediation of OSS Vulnerabilities

SCA remediates open-source software vulnerabilities in various ways. First, identifying deprecated or outdated OSS components ensures that developers are able to maintain a high standard of code quality for their projects. This reduces the risk of failures or bugs in the software they’re building.

Software Composition Analysis often involves integrating continuous code scanning into the build environment so you can always monitor for code vulnerabilities. Once such vulnerabilities are detected, the SCA tool automatically identifies the locations and may suggest solutions to fix the issue while providing information on how implementing the fix will impact your build.

Some SCA tools can also automate the remediation process so it starts as soon as the vulnerability is detected. It keeps a severity score and generates reports in order to help you keep up with the patch implemented for the open-source components. A system like this is an excellent solution for risk mitigation because it alerts you of vulnerabilities and fixes them before they can be exploited by malicious actors.

Vulnerability Management Efficiency  

Although SCA reduces the risk of vulnerabilities, if a security incident does occur, doing an SCA makes it easier to identify components that are affected. It also helps the security team to determine the extent of the impact so they can fix the issue as quickly and efficiently as possible. Using an SCA tool helps organizations respond effectively to security incidents in order to minimize the damage they cause.

The Five Main Benefits of SCA

Software Composition Analysis (SCA) is crucial for organizations that want to develop secure and reliable software applications. With the use of open-source components becoming increasingly popular, organizations need to be on their toes to navigate the many security vulnerabilities and compliance problems that come with it. The following are some of the main benefits of Software Composition Analysis as a means of compiling software inventory, mitigating risks, and remediating them.

  1. Efficiency—Software Composition Analysis helps organizations identify and manage the open-source components used in their applications. Doing so ensures that the components used are up-to-date, secure, and compliant with licensing policies. Since the SCA is automated, it reduces the amount of time and effort spent on manually identifying and managing open-source components, making the development process even more efficient. SCA also enables organizations to identify and remove redundant or unused components, which can further improve efficiency and reduce costs.
  2. Integration into the CI/CD pipeline—SCA can be integrated into the Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) pipeline. This allows for automated testing and validation of open-source components throughout the development process. This integration helps ensure that any vulnerabilities or licensing issues are detected and addressed early in the development cycle, rather than after the software has been deployed. By integrating SCA into the CI/CD pipeline, organizations can improve the overall quality of their software and reduce the risk of security breaches.
  3. SBOM automation—Another primary benefit of SCA is the ability to generate SBOM and Automate SBOM Creation. SBOMs provide a comprehensive inventory of all the open-source components used in an application, as well as any dependencies and licensing information. This information is critical for compliance and audit purposes, as well as for managing the security risks associated with open-source components. By automating the generation of SBOMs, organizations can save time and effort and ensure that they have an up-to-date and accurate inventory of all the open-source components used in their applications. Recent policies have also made the generation of SBOMs compulsory for each iteration of a product. SCA will simplify the process of generating this documentation in order to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements.
  4. Policy issues—SCA can help organizations enforce and maintain their software policies. SCA can be configured to scan for specific vulnerabilities, licensing issues, or other policy violations, and alert developers and managers when these issues arise. This ensures that developers are aware of existing or potential issues and can take the necessary steps to address them before the software is deployed. Additionally, SCA can help organizations ensure that they comply with legal and regulatory requirements related to open-source software.
  5. Third-party development—Many organizations rely on third-party vendors or contractors to develop software applications. SCA can help ensure that these third-party vendors are using secure components in the application development. SCA can be used to scan the code provided by third-party vendors and identify any vulnerabilities or licensing issues. This helps ensure that organizations are not exposed to unnecessary security risks or legal liabilities.

What Is Next for Software Composition Analysis?

The explosive growth in open-source adoption is not expected to slow down any time soon. The implication of this is that Software Composition Analysis will become increasingly important over the next couple of years and SCA tools will continue to evolve as well.

With the growing need to apply open-source governing policies across the organization. Software Composition Analysis tools will have to evolve to match up, especially in large enterprises that often have multiple projects going on at the same time. To keep up, SCA platforms may have to include policy engines as a standard feature.

In coming years, SCA tools may also contribute to improvements in code quality beyond their current usage of simply identifying components. SCA will help development teams determine the code’s provenance and qualities. This will help them determine if they can rely on these code libraries on a long-term basis.

We can also expect SCA tools of the future to become more developer-friendly. While many SCA platforms today offer some level of automation and integration with standard workflows, this is likely to get better in the future as SCA tools evolve to offer stronger mitigation and remediation support for developers among other features.


Software Composition Analysis (SCA) is a vital process that every organization must prioritize to ensure the security, compliance, and quality of software applications. With the increasing use of open-source software components, SCA can help organizations identify and mitigate risks before they’re exploited by attackers. By integrating SCA into development processes, organizations can improve their overall security posture, reduce the risk of security breaches, and ensure compliance with licensing agreements. It is a proactive approach to software development for organizations to embrace as a standard practice to keep applications safe, secure, and reliable.